SIMEON THE HASMONEAN (called Thassis; d. 134 B.C.E.), the second son of mattathias . The origin of the name Thassis is obscure, and many conjectures have been put forward. Some think it is to be connected with the Hebrew toses (תּוֹסֵס, "vigorous") or tashush (תָּשׁוּשׁ, "weakling"), while others regard it as a variant of the Hebrew name Assi or the Syrian Tarsi. On his deathbed, Mattathias recommended Simeon as counselor for Judah, who was military commander against the Syrians. Under Judah he played an independent role as commander of the expedition that went to the aid of the Jews of Galilee. According to II Maccabees (14:17) he attacked nicanor and was defeated by him. When Judah died, Simeon and his brother Jonathan buried him in the family sepulcher in modi 'in. Simeon was Jonathan's right-hand man in the wars with the hellenizers and the Syrians. He distinguished himself, among other things, by relieving the city of Bathbasi which had been besieged by bacchides . He also took part with Jonathan in the war against Apollonius. At the time of Tryphon's rule in Syria, with Jonathan's rule at its zenith (145–143 B.C.E.), Simeon was appointed military governor of the whole coastal region of Israel from the Ladder of Tyre to the Egyptian border. During Jonathan's campaigns in Galilee, Simeon remained in authority in Judea, during which time he conquered Beth-Zur and fortified Adittha. On Jonathan's treacherous capture by Tryphon in 143 B.C.E., the leadership passed inevitably to Simeon, now the sole survivor of the Hasmonean brothers. He fortified Jerusalem, strengthened his hold on Jaffa, and prepared to face Tryphon, all the time endeavoring, but in vain, to ransom his brother from him. Tryphon's efforts to penetrate Judea were repelled by Simeon and he was forced to withdraw, but put Jonathan to death. Simeon buried Jonathan at Modi'in, where he erected a splendid monument in his memory. In the dispute over the throne in Syria Simeon supported demetrius II, who recognized his rule and waived his claim to tribute. The year 142 B.C.E. was regarded as the beginning of Judean independence and the years of Simeon's rule were reckoned from that date. Simeon also conquered Gazara (Gezer) and Judaized it, driving out the Syrian garrison from the citadel. For a while after this Judea enjoyed a period of peace. The ties with Sparta and Rome were renewed. In the year 140, Simeon's position was confirmed by the nation. He and his children after him were appointed by a public assembly to the position of high priest, ethnarch, and commander of the army, thus establishing the Hasmonean dynasty. A copy of the resolution was engraved upon tablets which were set up in the Temple court. During the latter half of Simeon's rule the danger to Judean independence was renewed. Antiochus VII Sidetes became ruler of Syria, and endeavored to revive the shattered Seleucid Empire. Syrian relations with Simeon deteriorated and Cendebaeus was sent against Judea, but Simeon's sons defeated him. Soon after, during a tour of the country, Simeon was murdered in Jericho by his son-in-law ptolemy b. abubus , who may have conspired with the Syrians. Simeon was succeeded by his son john hyrcanus . -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Schuerer, Hist, index S.V. Simeon the Maccabee; Meyer, Ursp, 2 (1921), 260–7; Klausner, Bayit Sheni, index S.V. Shimon b. Matityahu. (Uriel Rappaport)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • SIMEON THE JUST — SIMEON THE JUST, high priest in the time of Alexander the Great who was surnamed the Just both because of his piety toward God and his benevolence to his countrymen (see also Jos., Ant. 12:157). According to Josephus (Ant. 12:43), he is identical …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Simeon the Just — (Hebrew: שמעון הצדיק) (or Shimon HaTzaddik or Shimon the Pious or Simeon the Righteous) was the Jewish High Priest during the time of the Second Temple. He is also known for some of his views which are recorded in the Mishnah, (making him a Tanna …   Wikipedia

  • JOHANAN THE HASMONEAN — (d. 161 B.C.E.), son of mattathias the Hasmonean and brother of Judah Maccabee, Jonathan, Simeon, and Eleazar. If their names in I Maccabees 2:2–5 are given in the order of their ages, he was the oldest son of Mattathias. His cognomen was Gaddi… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • JONATHAN THE HASMONEAN — (also called Apphus; d. 143 B.C.E.), head of the Jewish state (160–143); youngest son of mattathias . Jonathan fought, together with his brother Judah Maccabee, in the first battles at the beginning of the Hasmonean revolt and took over the… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Simon the Hasmonean (Simeon ben Mattathias) — (fl. 2nd cent, BCE)    Palestinian ruler and high priest, second son of Mattathias the Hasmonean. In 142 BCE he succeeded his brother Jonathan as head of the Jewish state. He captured Gezer, secured the evacuation of Greek troops from the… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • HASMONEAN BET DIN — (Heb. בֵּית דִּין שֶׁל חַשְׁמוֹנָאִים); according to a talmudic source (Sanh. 82a; Av. Zar. 36b) the court of the Hasmoneans decreed that an Israelite who had intercourse with a heathen woman is liable to punishment on account of נשג״א (NShGA), a …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Hasmonean — Infobox Former Country native name = conventional long name = Hasmonean Kingdom common name = continent = Asia region = Levant country = era = Hellenistic Age status = Jewish theocracy government type = Jewish theocracy with priestly king year… …   Wikipedia

  • The Chanukah Song — is a humorous song written by comedian Adam Sandler with Saturday Night Live writers Lewis Morton and Ian Maxtone Graham and originally performed by Sandler on Saturday Night Live s Weekend Update on December 3, 1994.[1] Sandler subsequently… …   Wikipedia

  • SYNAGOGUE, THE GREAT — (Heb. כְּנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה, Keneset ha Gedolah). Chronology The institution of the Great Synagogue, or perhaps, more correctly, the Great Assembly, belongs to that period of Jewish history which is still virtually a complete blank, namely the… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • MATTATHIAS BEN SIMEON — MATTATHIAS BEN SIMEON, son of simeon the hasmonean . During the winter of 135 B.C.E., Mattathias, together with his mother and brother Judah, was seized at a banquet given in Simeon s honor by his son in law ptolemy , who was governor of Jericho …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.